A University of Iowa research paper on intimate partner violence during pregnancy and the risk for adverse infant outcomes has been awarded the David Liu Prize by the Royal Academy of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.
The paper appeared in BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (BJOG) in 2016.
Researchers analyzed 50 studies into the effects of domestic violence by a partner or ex-partner on risk of preterm birth, low birth weight (less than 2500g) and small-for-gestational-age babies. The combined results evaluated more than 5 million women from 17 countries, 15,000 of whom had experienced domestic violence.
Overall, the results found that domestic violence doubled the risk of preterm birth and low birth weight. This risk further increased for women who experienced two or more types of domestic violence during their pregnancy.
The research team included Audrey Saftlas, professor of epidemiology; Brittney Donovan, doctoral student in epidemiology; Kelli Ryckman, associate professor of epidemiology; Cassie Spracklen, doctoral student in epidemiology; and Marin Schweitzer, assistant professor of internal medicine.
Mr. David T. Y. Liu, author of the classic text Labour Ward Manual and pioneer in chorion villus sampling, generously funds this prize to encourage research and publication in obstetrics and prenatal diagnosis.
The award recipient is chosen annually from papers in the field that have been published in BJOG over the previous 12 months. Contending articles are appraised on their validity, the likelihood of the findings being adopted into practice regionally and internationally, whether the paper is explained sufficiently for replication, and the quality of outcomes relevant for patients.
Researchers at the UI College of Public Health will use a “collaboratory” approach for two projects that tackle public health concerns. Funded by the Iowa Institute of Public Health Research and Policy (IIPHRP), the first project will investigate health risks from exposure to insecticides, and the second will work to improve health outcomes for low-birth-weight and premature children.
“A collaboratory is a creative group process designed to solve complex problems,” says Vickie Miene, interim director of the IIPHRP. “The process generates the opportunity for new organizational networks to form. This approach expands the scope, scale, and impact of public health research.”
The projects, which were selected through a competitive application process, provide an opportunity to gather collaborators from different backgrounds and disciplines around a topic to develop an innovative research proposal. A successful collaboratory stimulates an aspirational research proposal such as a large research service or center grant that bolsters and builds upon areas of research closely linked to the college’s three collective areas of excellence: rural health, comparative effectiveness research, and community engagement. The collaboratory leverages existing strengths within the college, while fostering new collaborations within and outside the University of Iowa.
Human Exposure and Health Risks from Neonicotinoid Insecticides
Bill Field, professor of occupational and environmental health, is the leader of the Collaboratory to Identify Human Exposure and Health Risks from Neonicotinoid Insecticides. Neonicotinoids are a relatively new class of insecticide, but have become the most widely used class of agricultural insecticides in the world.
Historically, neonicotinoid insecticides have been viewed as ideal replacements for more toxic compounds, such as organophosphates, due in part to their perceived limited potential to impact the environment and human health. Within the agricultural sector, they are preferred over other pesticides for several reasons, including their ability to be applied using a variety of methods; lower toxicity in birds, fish, and mammals; and high selectivity and potency for insects.
Few studies have been conducted to characterize human exposure to neonicotinoids or the insecticides’ potential health risks. The collaborative team will develop the infrastructure and preliminary data required to investigate the emerging potential risks of neonicotinoid exposure.
To the researchers’ knowledge, the collaborative is the first group in the U.S. to directly evaluate the potential human exposure of neonicotinoid insecticides. The study is also the first to assess neonicotinoid insecticide contamination in private wells used for drinking water, and the first to validate biomarkers necessary for future neonicotinoid-human health investigations.
Members of the team include: Wei Bao, MD, PhD; Susie Dai, PhD; Manuel Gadogbe, PhD; Michelle Hladik, PhD; Christopher Jones, PhD; Dana Kolpin, MS; Hans-Joachim Lehmler, PhD; Bob Libra, MS; Charles Lynch, MD, PhD; Keith Schilling, PhD; Darrin Thompson, MPH; John Vargo, PhD; and Peter Weyer, PhD.
The collaborative has also received letters of support from the Center for Health Effects of Environmental Contamination, Heartland Center for Occupational Health and Safety, Agricultural Health Study, Environmental Health Sciences Research Center, the Iowa Registry for Congenital and Inherited Disorders, Iowa Center for Agricultural Safety and Health, Iowa Department of Natural Resources, State Hygienic Laboratory at the University of Iowa, and U.S. Geological Survey.
Iowa Perinatal Health Research Collaborative
Kelli Ryckman, associate professor of epidemiology, is the leader of the Iowa Perinatal Health Research Collaborative (IPHRC). The central mission of the IPHRC is to develop a network of perinatal care providers and public health professionals working to improve the health outcomes of children born low birth weight (LBW) and/or preterm through innovative and multidisciplinary research initiatives.
Advances in neonatal intensive care have drastically reduced perinatal mortality related to LBW and/or preterm births. In infants born before 27 completed weeks of gestation, there is a 65% chance of survival and a 56% chance of survival without severe impairment, nationally. In Iowa, survival without severe impairment is even higher.
Follow-up of “high risk” infants is recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics; however, standard guidelines are lacking on how long follow-up should occur and which infants qualify as “high risk.” Individuals identified for further follow-up widely varies based on the resource availability, and children who may benefit from resources or specialized programs are undoubtedly missed or excluded. This underscores the need for perinatal research collaboratives that bring together providers, public health care professionals, and families to identify outcomes and health care utilization gaps for children born LBW and/or preterm.
The project will focus on three intersecting thematic areas:
The Database Development thematic area will establish a statewide database of children born LBW and/or preterm that provides a platform for outcomes research, quality improvement initiatives, and interventions.
The Health Services and Outcomes thematic area will develop a hospital services and outcomes data source to better understand the health care needs and outcomes in this population of Iowa children.
The Family and Community Engagement thematic area will engage families in research initiatives and provide and promote existing resources for families.
Team members include Mary Charlton, assistant professor of epidemiology; John Dagle, professor of pediatrics; and Lane Strathearn, professor of pediatrics and co-director of the University of Iowa Center for Excellence in Developmental Disabilities. In addition, graduate students Allison Momany and Nichole Nidey will contribute to this work.
The Iowa Institute of Public Health Research and Policy (IIPHRP) is pleased to announce the participants selected for its inaugural Policy Fellow Program. The 2016-2017 Policy Fellows are Mary Charlton, assistant professor of epidemiology; Cara Hamann, associate in epidemiology; and Kelli Ryckman, associate professor of epidemiology.
The year-long Policy Fellow Program creates opportunities for primary faculty to enhance their skills for translating public health research into practice and policy. Policy Fellows will attend training workshops, be linked with experts, interact with policymakers and stakeholders, and work as a team to accomplish individualized goals.
Each Policy Fellow proposed an Action Learning Project (ALP) as part of the application process. The ALP is an opportunity for each Fellow to incorporate policy impact into their research portfolio while developing new skills as they are supported by the IIPHRP.
Charlton’s project involves engaging stakeholders to make policy changes and revisions to the Iowa administrative code that will strengthen cancer reporting requirements in the state.
“I know it won’t be a quick and easy road, but with connections to the right people and the support of the program, I look forward to working with experts who can help me navigate around barriers and reach consensus that will bring about positive change,” Charlton says.
“My passion is finding ways to improve the care of preterm, low-birth-weight, and sick newborns in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit,” says Ryckman about her motivation to apply to the program. Her project is to refine the newborn screening policy for babies in the NICU that will result in fewer false-positive screens. “Through the program, I hope to build consensus based on the evidence and disseminate a uniform set of guidelines for newborn screening in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit that allows for better utilization of resources across the state of Iowa and beyond.”
The ALP approach requires including at least one stakeholder meeting and a product, such as a policy brief, proposed legislative language, or a “how-to-guide” to disseminate at the end of the Fellowship. Hamann intends to develop an issue brief to highlight bicycling safety research, a topic that has received more attention recently due to an increasing number of automobile and bicycle crashes in Iowa.
“I was motivated to apply to this program to develop skills that can take my research and translate it into tangible products to be used for policy change that can have a real impact on safety,” says Hamann. “I want to use this opportunity to draw attention to bicycle safety and complement the current grassroots efforts underway in the bicycling community.”
“As researchers, we have a desire to impact our community, and that means translating evidence into policy or practice change. Building stakeholder coalitions and creating effective dissemination plans are strategies that work, but are not skills most researchers have been formally trained in,” adds CPH Dean Sue Curry. “The Policy Fellow Program provides a supportive and individualized learning environment for faculty to experiment and learn these important skills while simultaneously translating their research into public health practice.”
Policy Fellows will participate in learning activities, generate policy documents, and participate in efforts to better educate community members and governmental leaders on the importance of research. In addition, each Policy Fellow may access funds to enhance their learning. The program will invite a variety of experts to share knowledge on important topics, such as how the legislative process works and how to interact with the media to best communicate research findings.
Kelli Ryckman, associate professor of epidemiology and pediatrics, will be the 2016 – 2017 State Hygienic Laboratory Environmental and Public Health Ambassador.
Ryckman, who specializes in understanding genetic and metabolic predicators of preterm birth, will serve in the honorary position to help raise awareness of the public health laboratory system and its role in assuring the health of Iowans.
An open house to welcome Ryckman is scheduled for 3 – 4:30 p.m. on Thursday, Aug. 4 at the State Hygienic Laboratory on the UI Research Park Campus in Coralville.
“Dr. Ryckman’s research into how we can improve birth outcomes dovetails perfectly with the Hygienic Laboratory’s focus on maternal and newborn screening,” said State Hygienic Laboratory Director Christopher Atchison. “We look forward to expanding our work with Dr. Ryckman to further improve birth outcomes in Iowa.”
Ryckman has authored many studies, including research of metabolic profiles and gestation. She collaborated with the State Hygienic Laboratory and the Iowa Newborn Screening Program on the study.
Also scheduled for 2 – 4:30 p.m. on Aug. 4 is a visit to the laboratory by the UI Mobile Museum, which brings university artifacts, research and interactive displays to communities across the state. The Hygienic Laboratory’s Ambient Air Quality program is featured in one of this year’s displays. Since April 2016, the Mobile Museum has traveled 4,366 miles and attracted 10,413 visitors.